Abstract : Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the main gynaecological complaints encountered by the ayurvedic physicians nowadays. It may be defined as any bleeding from the genital tract which is a deviation from the normal in frequency, cycle and quantity . The conditions in which there is abnormal vaginal bleeding occurs is explained under different entities in ayurveda. Some of them are raktayoni, lohitakshaya, asrigdara, nashtartava, artavakshaya etc. Although most of the menstrual disorders are due to vata and pitta , the way in which they vitiate( samprapti) varies. The modern science have clearly given the classification of PALM-COEIN to explain the causes of abnormal uterine bleeding in non gravid women of reproductive age group. A detailed analysis of abnormal uterine bleeding seen in nongravid women explained in ayurvedic classics will be done which will help in diagnosing with samprapti ghatakas and give clear knowledge to samprapti vighatana (cikitsa) of the disease.
Abstract : ABSTRACT
A total of 730 samples comprising poultry caeca (210), chicken meat (111) and poultry droppings (180) along with faecal contents from goat (26), sheep (23), pigs (78), calves (20) and human (82) were collected from different places of Kumaun. Of these 39 (5.34% ) were found positive for Campylobacter. The highest prevalence was in poultry caeca (7.62%) followed by poultry droppings (7.22%), calves faeces (5%), humans stools (3.66%), chicken meat (3.60%) and pigs faeces (2.56%). Any Campylobacter could not be recovered in samples collected from goat and sheep. Out of 39 pure cultures isolated, 19 were identified as C. jejuni and 17 as C. coli, whereas, 3 C. jejuni cultures negative for hippurate hydrolysis test. All the C. jejuni isolates (100%) were found to be sensitive to Amoxiclav, while 93.75% showed resistance towards Penicillin G. Among 7 Campylobacter coli isolates, 5 (71.43%) were sensitivity to Amoxyclav and Ampicillin. Only Penicillin G was found to be resistant in 5 (71.43%) of the C. coli isolates.