Abstract : A retrospective study of bacterial isolates from pus and their susceptibility pattern was done among patients at Teule Designated District Hospital, Muheza, Tanzaniafrom October 2015 to August 2016. A total of 156 bacterial isolates were reviewed on the basis of their susceptibility pattern. Of these, 59 (37.82%) were Staphylococcus aureus followed by Proteus mirabilis 21 (13.46%), Coliforms 19 (12.17%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 15 (9.61%), Escherichia coli 12 (7.69%) Klebsiella pneumonia 5 (3.20%), Acinetobacter species 3(1.92%), Streptococcus pyogenes 4 (2.56%), Klebsiella oxytoca 1 (0.64%) and mixed organisms 17 (10.89%). The sensitivity pattern showed that those sensitive to ciprofloxacin were 128 (92.8%), gentamicin 117 (81.3%) and ceftriaxone 50 (69.4%) while others where resistant to tetracycline 40 (67.6%), clotrimoxazole 82 (64.6%) and erythromycin 39 (57.4%). The study reveals that S. aureus is the leading cause in pus isolates. Ciprofloxacin (p = 0.5), gentamicin (p =0.05) and ceftazidime (p = 0.02) are the most effective and can be used empirically in treating these conditions though only gentamicin and ceftazidime are showing statistical significance. Resistance shown to erythromycin, tetracycline, ampicillin and cotrimoxazole may be due to being used over a much longer period of time and to indiscriminate use by health professionals.
Keyword : Muheza, Designated District Hospital, Antibiogram, Mixed organisms, Coliforms.
Abstract : The present investigation was under taken to study the evaluation of proconvulsivepotentials of levofloxacin a fluoroquinolonein epilepsy induced models like PTZ, Theophylline at sub convulsive dose and by electroconvulsometer; MES.Convulsions can be induced by electric shock of 150mA for 0.2 sec using ear clip electrodes. The duration in seconds of tonic flexion, tonic extension, clonic convulsion and post titanic depression can be noted. The increase in the duration of tonic extensor phase was considered as epileptic index. The convulsion can also be induced by giving sub convulsive dose i.e. 40mg/kg of PTZ intra-peritonealy. The animals were kept under observation for 15mins for the development of jerky movements and clonic seizures. Each mouse under the test received the test drug intraperitoneally 30 mins before i.p administration of subconvulsive dose of theophylline (125mg/kg). The animals were kept under observation for the onset of maximal seizures which was evidenced by tonic flexion of fore limbs, tonic extensor of hind limbs and clonic convulsions for 2 hours. The pro-convulsive potentials of Levofloxacin at two different doses were studied using MES, PTZ methods and co administered with theophylline and the results were compared with the control group and standard group. The results of the present study showed that levofloxacin demonstrated a significant proconvulsive profile in both MES and PTZ induced seizures and thus should be prescribed with caution. The % decrease in the level of GABA treated with levofloxacin at 25 mg/kg bodyweight in mice brain is 10.92 as compared to control was 16.14 in MES induced seizures.The %decrease in the level of GABA treated with levofloxacin at 25 mg/kg bodyweight in mice brain was 7.85 as compared to control was 16.14 on PTZ induced seizures. Similarly the GABA level was also decreased to 8.88% on treatment with levofloxacin at 25mg/kg bodyweight as compared to control was 16.14% on co administration withtheophylline.