Abstract : The purpose of this study is to clarify the factors affecting the dose of radiation exposed to the patient during cardiac catheterization procedures, optimal dose measurement while maintaining image quality, and how to avoid the risk of radiation. 188 heart catheters were performed for elderly patients in two cardiology centres, Wad Medani Heart diseases &surgery Centre (WHC) during the period (2017 - 2018 and the Sudanese Heart Centre (SHC) from August to September 2018, All the machines used in the study have passed the quality control tests conducted by the Sudanese Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC), The study found that the optimal radiation dose depends on a number of factors, the number of frames (Fr), number of films (N.F), fluoroscopy time(FT), KVp, ms, BMI, SID, type of procedure and clinical indication, to reduce the radiation risk and achieve the optimal dose and maintain the lowest possible level recommended the study to apply the largest possible distance(SID) and the minimum number of frames and the number of films, fluoroscopy time and follow up all procedures high precision and training of doctors and radiologist. Along with the development of physician methods and skills, we suggest planning a specific program before the procedure and this helps to reduce radiation dose and avoid radiation risk.
Keywords: Radiation, radiation dose, biological effects, Angiography, Cardiac catheterization.
Abstract : Leaf and stem ethanol extracts of Sundarbans mangrove plant Phoenix paludosa Roxb were explored for its antioxidant, antidiabetic and antibacterial activities by using different methods. After phytochemical investigation, the leaf extract showed higher DPPH and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activities than the stem extract. In ferric reducing and reducing power capacity assays, both leaf and stem extract exhibited dose-dependent reducing capacity but stem extracts showed the marked response. Moreover, total phenol (TP) in mg GAE/g extract, total flavonoid (TF) in mg QE/g extract and total tannin (TT) in mg GAE/g extract contents are higher in stem extracts (TP:185.42±1.62; TF:70.01±0.19; TT:30.31±0.18) than leaf extract (TP: 176.22±1.06; TF:61.79± 0.09; TT:27.97±0.14). The stem extracts predominantly (p<0.05) reduced the blood glucose level at the dose of 500mg/kg in glucose-induced hyperglycemic mice. The leaf extracts didn’t show any anti hyperglycemic activity. The stem extract showed significant antibacterial activity that means the zone of inhibition (ZOI) against all tested microorganisms with more potent activity against Salmonella typhi (ZOI: 15.00mm) than leaf extract. The present study reveals the potential of stem extracts of P. paludosa as the antioxidant, antidiabetic and antibacterial agent than leaf extract.
Keywords: Phoenix paludosa Roxb, Antioxidant, Anti hyperglycemic, Antibacterial.
Keyword : Phoenix paludosa Roxb, Antioxidant, Anti hyperglycemic, Antibacterial.