Abstract : The Indian Pharmaceutical Industries underwent phenomenal change after 1 January 2005, when international patent laws were implemented. India’s domestic pharmaceutical companies have experienced a significant increase in R&D spending to be competitive in the world market. Although the Indian pharmaceutical market is very small and does not have enough funding for drug discovery programs, India has well-educated scientists, a well-established computer industry, and technological know-how for the manufacture of bulk drugs and formulations. This article discusses various challenges of India’s pharmaceutical industry and how it could tie to the American Pharmaceutical industry. Recent globalization and the development of the information superhighway have brought the countries of the world closer. From a business perspective, the world is one market place. The American pharmaceutical industry has played a pioneering role in the development of the drug industry through in-depth, timely, and useful research and bulk manufacturing of drug products. Although the US pharmaceutical industry is enjoying the leadership position, it can no longer be content to focus only on the US, Japanese, and European markets.
Keyword : Pharma-hub, Intellectual Property Rights, Indian Patent Laws.
Abstract : ABSTRACT
Background: Dental practice is a high risk profession and face the risk of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) due to uncomfortable static posture during work, repetitive movements, long term static contractions and use of high vibration tools.
Study Objectives: The purpose of the study was to assess upper extremity and neck disability in dentist. And to study the relationship of upper extremity and neck disability with pinch strength.
Methodology: A total of 316 dentist were recruited from various clinics and dental colleges from Belagavi for the study on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria after signing the informed consent form.
Outcome measures: Disability was measured by Neck Pain Disability Index and Disability of Arm, Shoulder, Hand Questionnaire. Pinch Strength was measured by pinch gauge.
Results: There was increasing disability with increase in age and increase in work experience. Pinch strength was affected with increasing disability and because of repetitive work by hand and wrist.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that awkward neck posture and repetitive work done by upper extremity exacerbates degenerative changes and increases risk of disability in dentist with increase in age and experience. In addition there is also a loss of pinch strength on the dominant side with increase in age and experience.
Keyword : Dentist, Pinch Strength, Neck Pain Disability, Disability of arm, shoulder and hand