Abstract : The plants are less harmful in nature; hence they are the best option in the treatment of many diseases. Medicinal plants are considered to be the biosynthetic laboratory for many phytopharmaceuticals. The essential values of some plants have long been published but a large number of them remain unexplored as yet. So there is a necessity to explore their uses and also to conduct pharmacognostic and pharmacological studies to ascertain their therapeutic properties.
Abstract : Improving the quality of health care is an increasingly important goal in the National Health Care system. Quality of care can be determined by patients’ outcomes. It is important as an improvement of patients’ outcomes that are related to receiving better health care, improving efficiency of care, cutting down the cost of health expenses and lastly decreasing mortality rate. Pressure ulcers have a detrimental effect on patient health and well-being and as well as medication errors that are placed as an important measurement tool for patients’ outcomes. It is important to identify patients’ outcomes as to differentiate critical thinking and problem solving skills of nurses from different educational and working experience background. The aim of this study was to investigate the nurses’ characteristics and patients’ outcomes in medical and surgical wards. This is a retrospective, descriptive study involving nurses and patients who had been hospitalized in medical and surgical wards at Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan (HTAA) Kuantan, Pahang. Nursing characteristics and data would be extracted from existing database within the institution for 1 year of the period to determine patients' outcomes and nursing characteristics. Descriptive statistic and chi-square test using PASW Statistic Version 19.0 were used as data analysis. The results obtained showed that majority of nurses in medical and surgical wards was having diploma (79.2%) and having working experience less than 5 years (62.5%). Meanwhile the total prevalence of Hospital-acquired Pressure Ulcer (HAPU) among non-ambulatory patients in medical and surgical wards was 19.93% and the total prevalence of medication errors in medical and surgical wards was 25.69%. There was no association between non-ambulatory patients and Hospital-acquired Pressure Ulcer (HAPU) (p>0.05). As nurses are important to play central role in providing the best quality of care, the nurse must be provided with an essential knowledge and practice to be able to cure the patients holistically with an ability in planning the correct and appropriate intervention immediately.
Abstract : Keratins are the most abundant proteins in epithelial cells of vertebrates. The keratinise wastes are produced in large quantities all over the world from animals and birds including human beings. Worldwide poultry processing plants are producing millions of tons of feathers as waste product annually, which consists of approximately 90% keratin. The present study investigated keratinises from the decaying poultry feather and human hair samples. Two types of indigenous fungi were isolated and their enzyme activity was measured. The fungi were named as Aspergillus sp and pencillium sp. These fungi were then tested for the production of amylase, protease, lipase and keratinase. Both the fungi were to produce amylase, protease and keratinase. The extracellular lipase was more found to be Aspergillus sp when compared to pencillium sp. Substrate decomposition was found to be better in Aspergillus sp than in pencillium sp. Aspergillus sp showed 38% loss of hen feather as compared to 25% loss of human hair whereas pencillium sp showed 21% loss of feather and 20% of human hair. Two fungi were tested for the production of amino acid by thin layer chromatography. Comparatively, Aspergillus sp was found to be producing more amounts of enzymes.