Abstract : ABSTRACT
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a condition where CD4+ cell count falls below 200 cells/µl and immune system begins to fail in humans leading to life threatening infections. HIV is transmitted by sexual contact, exposure to infected body fluids or tissues and from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery or breast feeding (vertical transmission).Hence the efforts for prevention and control of HIV have to rely largely on sexually transmitted disease (STD) control measures and AIDS. In the developing countries both prevalence and incidence of AIDS are very high. The management of AIDS can be controlled by antiretroviral therapy, alternative medicine, use of condoms etc. In present study is an update on stages of HIV infection, HIV transmission and approaches for prevention and management of AIDS.
Abstract : The present work aims to develop and evaluate buccal tablets of Nebivolol Hydrochloride. Tablets of Nebivolol Hydrochloride were prepared by direct compression method using bioadhesive polymers like Chitosan, Guargum, Xanthan gum in different ratios. The tablets were evaluated for pre and post compression parameters and found to be within the limits. The tablets were evaluated for in vitro release in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer for 8 hr in standard dissolution apparatus. In order to determine the mode of release, the data was subjected to Zero order, first order, Higuchi, Korsmeyer and Peppas diffusion model. The formulation F3 showed maximum drug release (89.06%) in 8 hrs. The optimized formulation F3 showed a surface pH of 6.18 and was following Zero order mechanism with regression value of 0.981. FT-IR studies revealed the absence of any chemical interaction between drug and polymers used.
Abstract : In the present study the selected plant extracts and polyherbal mixture (PHM) were screened for their antihyperglycemic potential and thereby for their possible role in inhibition of the pathways leading to diabetic complications in STZ induced diabetic rats. Three herbs namely fruit pulp of Citrullus colocynthis (CC), leaves of Stevia rebaudiana (SR), and leaves of Swertia Chirayata (SC). Initially hypoglycemic studies were conducted without inducing of diabetes mellitus. Based on the results obtained PHM was prepared. The extracts which are showing % reduction of glucose between 30 -50% were selected in order to avoid hypoglycemic shock. All the selected plant extracts and PHM were found to decreased glucose levels at 3rd and 8th hrs and standard drug was found to decrease glucose levels at 1st & 6th hr significantly after every week (biphasic reduction). All the selected plant extracts and PHM were found to increase insulin levels at 3rd and 8th hrs and standard drug was found to increase levels at 1st & 6th hr significantly after every week (biphasic reduction).PHM was found to most potent.
Abstract : Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder with high incidence of non-traumatic limb amputations, morbidity, and mortality. the study investigated the hypoglycemic properties of the methanolic leaf extract of Tetracapidium conophorus on alloxane-induced diabetic rat. Diabetes was induced in Wister rat using 150mg/kg of alloxan. Groups A and B were the test groups and received 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg of methanolic leaf extract respectively through the oral route, while Group C received glibenclamide. Group D served as the diabetic negative control. The leaf extract significantly reduced the blood sugar from 569.50±10.43 mg/dl to 368.60 ±22.93mg/dl in 2hours compared to the fasting blood sugar (FBS) level of 499.20 ± 25.4mg/dl, a positive control of 490.20 ±9.75 mg/dl and a negative control of 556.40 ± 29.69 mg/dl (p<0.05). In 4 hours, there was a significant reduction of blood glucose to 340.20 ±46.93mg/dl with same dose of 200mg/kg (p<0.01). The RBS dropped to 306.20±30.96mg/dl in 2hours and 216.00±28.58mg/dl in 4hours respectively at a dose of 400mg/kg when compared to a fasting level of 526.60 ±11.36mg/dl (p<0.01) and positive control of 490.20 ±7.75mg/dl. A 200mg/kg dose of the extract in sub-acute study showed a significant reduction of RBS on the 8th day with a value of 378.00 ±24.64mg/dl when compared to a negative control of 569.50 ± 10.48mg/dl. Administration of 400mg/kg caused a reduction of 262.75 ±66.58mg/dl when compared to a positive control of 462 25 ±27.51mg/dl and a negative control of 569.50 ±10.43mg/dl (p<0.01). The result indicated that the methanolic leaf extract of Tetracarpidium conophorum has hypoglycemic effects in alloxane induced diabetic rat.