Abstract : Health care financing involves huge economic burden, which cannot be borne by the government alone. Breaking even in health care financing in the 21st century demands that government corporate with agencies, donors, individuals, and communities to finance health care services in their domains. This article presents a view of rational approach to health care financing and discussed ways of promoting and fostering health development through partnership. Literature search using Embase, Medline and relevant official documents was conducted based on identified criteria. Current trends in health care financing was driven by determination to change the poor health indices, rising need for health care and huge economic burden it places on the government and the realization that most countries with better health care services use different types of public private partnership (PPP) for health care development and sustainability. This is being driven by policy reforms to improve access for affordable health care while ensuring sustainability. This study suggests that improved health care development, financing, and sustainability are possible through public private partnership. It underscored the need to explore other methods of funding apart from the traditional government budgetary spending, which has not greatly favoured our health care development.
Keyword : Health Care, Financing Mechanism, Partnership, Community, Policy, Nigeria
Abstract : The millennium development goals which was pursued for 15 years by many countries globally has elapsed with many countries which grappled with their inability to achieve up to 30% of their desired goals due to poor planning , implementation, monitoring and evaluation. This article organized and synthesized literatures on the effects of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and ways of translating the key health related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) number three targets to realities. Electronic search of relevant materials and articles was conducted with focus on millennium development goals (MDGs) and SDGs in Cochrane, Google, PubMed, and official publications of relevant agencies electronically. PubMed, Materials that met the eligibility criteria were extracted, and summarized based predominantly on qualitative level. More than 80% of the MDGs targets were not actualized with huge resources expended. Poor of planning, strict monitoring and evaluation, poor funding, government policies and sociopolitical instabilities were the major pitfalls in the past dispensation of MDG. MDG interventions in Nigeria were grossly unrealized due to political, structural, and systemic failure. Institutionalization of short, medium, and long-term plans and framework will enhance translation of the goal to achievements by 2030.
Keyword : SDGs, MDGs, health coverage, population, policy, Nigeria
Abstract : This review illustrates the relationship between biomarker and breast cancer and their molecular aspects which referring to both drugs and therapies. Even though, various prediction models have been constructed for breast cancer therapy, established clinopathological factors are not sufficient for clinical decision making particular regarding adjuvant chemotherapy. Some of the key decisions in the current management of breast cancer involve the need for prognostication; which is especially important in identifying patients whose prognosis is so favorable or patients whose prognosis is poor with conventional treatment as to warrant consideration of more aggressive investigational therapies. Several major programs have been organized to facilitate the validation and assessment of cancer molecular marker alongside the established “standards of care” for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Despite their successes, it is now commonly accepted that molecular marker have independent predictive power for disease predisposition, early detection, cancer staging, therapy selection, identifying weather or not a cancer is metastatic, therapy monitoring, assessing prognosis and advanced in the adjuvant setting. In this review, markers have been discussed essentially by highlighting the molecular aspects and referring to both drug and therapies, only as overviews.