Abstract : Rice is a major food and energy source of more than half the world population. The grain is a major source of carbohydrate and even protein. There are a number of varieties grown in Kerala having high medicinal value. However, rice is a poor source of essential micronutrients such as Fe and Zn. Micronutrient malnutrition, and particularly Fe and Zn deficiency affect over three billion people worldwide, mostly in developing countries. Biofortification through breeding and genetic engineering is the best tool to enhance the iron and zinc content of rice to meet the problem of malnutrition and dietary supplementation.