- Hamid Kheyrodin*
Abstract : Herbal medicine is one of the oldest forms of medical treatment in human history and could be considered one of the forerunners of the modern pharmaceutical trade. Plants that have medical uses can be found growing in many settings all over the world. Iran with 1.64 million km2 areas has 7500-8000 plant species. Iran is an ancient country in usage of herbal plants. The ancient Persians soon became familiar with various medicinal plants. Several medicinal species are cultivated in Iran. This review focuses on some of these plants such as Ziziphora, Stachys, Satureja, Thymus, Scrophularia, Thymbra, Tanacetum, Ocimum and Crocus. Herbal medicine treats disease and promotes health with plant material. For centuries, herbal medicines are the primary methods to administer medicinally active compounds. Use of naturally occurring substances, usually of plant origin, in the prevention and treatment of disease, Western herbal medicine is based on the use of botanicals commonly available in North America and Europe. Herbal medicine is the study and use of medicinal properties of plants. We show that About three hundred Stachys species are reported; 34 of them are found in Iran, of which 13 are endemic. Several Stachys species are used in Iranian folk medicine as medicinal plants. In addition, pharmacological studies confirmed that extracts or components of plants belonging to the genus Stachys exert significant antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antitoxic and antianoxia effects The present total species diversity index H represent that plants belonged that 71 1.27 species, 41families.Cultivated crops have 24 species 2.40 and 11 families. The weeds had 57 species 1.51 and 23 families. The birds had 37 species 1.89 and 24 families, other aquatic faunal species 17 2.66 and 16 families. In the biodiversity of semnan iran was decreasing day by day. Agricultural crops and other aquatic fauna were listed maximum but plants, and weeds diversity index were minimum.
Keyword : Medicinal plants. Iran, plant materials